Training for the trades of the bank-finance to bac + 4/5


What courses focus on when is the Bank and finance trades?

What courses focus on when is the Bank and finance trade? You are likely to feel lost with the maze of existing curricula. In the guide the trades of Bank and finance (the student editions), Pascale Kroll helps you to see more clearly. Extracts.

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Those interested in the Bank and finance sector and who want to embark on lengthy studies about option binaire and Strategie et types de tendances, may choose between the masters, generally offered at the University, with courses in Commerce or engineering school.

What are favorite profiles?

“A double of a business school finance master is the curriculum that love the more the companies, explains Caroline Campbell, senior manager specialist of the Bank and financial institutions to the firm Robert Half.” “Specializations in audit are also very popular, including to carry out control and inspection or for positions of auditor of Agency and operational auditor.”

The players in the sector are looking for Actuaries, comparatif broker option binaire with sometimes preferences for young graduates from engineering schools with financial specialization obtained with a master. With the crisis, risk control activities (audit, control, management active-passive…) have the coast. Société Générale for example search from profiles of schools of engineers, but also of commerce, IEP (Institute of political studies) or masters to access the General Inspectorate. Graduates of scientific level bac + 5 formations, with knowledge in financial mathematics and computer science, are a profile of choice for a control function such as asset-liability Manager.

How reliable are the masters?

Whether it is “professional” or “search”, this degree allows professional integration. Specialize you in a very specialized field or you will acquire a double competence. There are a hundred masters oriented Bank (wealth management, back-office, for example). Some prepare Alternately, others in continuing education. In initial training, they include all the stages of long-term (3 to 6 months). Among the research masters, you can choose, for example, banking, finance and international trade, specialities etc.

What is the advantage of doing a business school?

These formations are a path in the Bank and finance trades. They provide a general education but remain highly valued recruiters. The most reputed schools deliver a master after 5 years of studies, after a preparation class or directly after the tray. You can also enter with a degree of level bac + 2 or bac + 3, via the parallel admissions procedure.

In addition to high-level training, these schools allow you to start in the profession through long-term internships or undertaking missions, during meetings with the Bank and finance professionals. They also give the opportunity to flesh out your address book with the old.


Academic to work in finance


This section examines the conventional paths that you can consider for a career in high finance and have been identified by consulting the profiles and biographies of financiers in Quebec, the Canada and the United States.

Banker in corporate finance

Corporate finance brings together banking activities which consist in assembling financial transactions, Plateforme d’aide à l’investissement, loans to businesses (loans with recourse, financing of projects without recourse, ready mezzanine, bonds), fund raising, advice on procurement or introduction to the stock exchange. The classic route begins by commercial studies specialized in finance or accounting at the undergraduate, but it is less common that were recruited from the ranks of lawyers and chartered accountants. It is not inabituel nor that a banker or financial analyst working in the field of natural resources may have formal training in geology and petroleum engineering. These different routes intersect to graduate when following a first work experience, these different paths people undertake a Masters degree in administration (MBA).

Banker in venture capital (or venture capitalist)

The highly specialized nature of the knowledge economy découvrez les broker option binaire fiable appeals to donors who are able to understand the products of cutting-edge companies. Thus, the job of venture capitalist is normally undertaken by a person having completed studies in engineering, chemistry or medical science followed by a master’s degree in administration (MBA) that will allow him to acquire a minimum of business knowledge.


Some postulate that make the MBA is suitable for any career in finance. You may need to qualify this belief by stating that undertake an MBA will not harm you, but to assume that this mastery will benefit you in all contexts because the MBA put primarily on the concepts of management and strategy. Dealer trade is an example of business where an MBA does not high added-value. Arbitration is of a technical nature and better studies of Economics, Econometrics and meilleur broker forex . Recognizing the limitations of a Masters in management, many employers now favor a candidate with the designation of Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) as a supplement, but as a substitute for the MBA. The designation of Financial Risk Manager (FRM) sharing a set of elements of the curriculum of the CFA, is gaining in popularity, but remains less known than the CFA.

Non-classical pathway

When there is that Quebec or Canada as reference, our perspective is necessarily very American, so we do not imagine that there are other courses to incorporate the body of trades of high finance. The United Kingdom is the archetype of the U.S. approach to recruitment. In the United Kingdom, business banking, well respected, are not perceived to be really difficult because they can be perfectly learned on the ground unlike for example in medicine or engineering. As a result, employers are not limited to applicants to the above identified academic courses. The only criteria for hiring to begin a career in finance are academic results, your intelligence and your personality. Especially for this reason, it is common in the United Kingdom that a banker has undertaken such studies in literature, languages, philosophy and that often these same have not completed graduate studies. On the other hand, are expected at the beginning of your career while working, you complete studies by correspondence such as the CFA and ACCA (accountant approved by correspondence).

Studies of medicine in Spain, how does it work?


The drafting

Can you give us the Youth Council and its role in Belgium?

Jérôme Lien

The Youth Council is the official organ of representation of 400,000 of the Wallonia-Brussels Federation youth aged 16 to 30 years.
We defend the youth, carry his voice to policy, I’m spontaneous opinions or on application of the policy to impact directly on political decisions involving youth.

The drafting

In France, medical studies go through a highly selective competition which sees 85% of applicants fail.
What is the selection principle adopted in Belgium?

Jérôme Lien

In Belgium, health care is a federal jurisdiction.
A limitation of numbers INAMI, numbers for the reimbursement of the patient care, is installed since 1997 at the end of the course.
Facing these quotas, communities, who have supported higher education, were invited to establish a selection system in higher education, to avoid supernumeraries at the end of the course.
Flanders has established an entrance examination, while the French community first established a selection at the end of the first three years, then a selection at the end of the first year and finally, now, a selection in January of the first year.
The problem is that, both in Flanders that French community, selection systems missed too many students compared to the NIHDI quotas available at the end of the course.

The drafting

How many places are offered each year and how many candidates come?

Jérôme Lien

1 230 places are available each year for about 1 400 candidates for the Belgium.
The problem is that this number is growing every year.
At present, all students are able to receive an INAMI number because it was dug in the quotas for subsequent years.
Now, the situation is much more complicated because there are none of the subsequent years or in any case too little numbers INAMI for all students.

The drafting

What is the form adopted for assessments (predominantly type MCQ for contest PACES in France)?

Jérôme Lien

It depends on the Faculty of medicine, and it also depends on the year of study: in the first years where there are many students, there are a lot of reviews written with either open or quizzes, either real or false questions.
In the past years where clinical skills are evaluated after the internship, it is essentially an oral examination.
Nothing is standardized between the faculties of medicine, both in terms of assessments throughout medical school, in terms of the access to the speciality contest.

The drafting

Are studies of medicines expensive in Belgium?

Jérôme Lien

As everywhere! The price of the syllabus can mount up to €250 per year, medical equipment is very expensive, the registration fee is set at €830, and that’s not counting housing and food.

The drafting

Can you describe the format of lessons (proportion theoretical courses, practical courses…)?

Jérôme Lien

Yet once again, nothing is standardized between faculties.

You will learn about diet supplements and weightloss products as seen on this garcinia cambogia website and cafe verde.
Generally, the first three correspond to the theoretical basic teachings.
This implies courses in Physiology, Anatomy, basic science, biochemistry, semiology and histology.
In the 3rd year, there are already courses of specialties such as cardiology, Pulmonology, and some ethics and epidemiology.
Then, with regard to the last three years, it are characterized by teaching courses specialty, and an intensive internship practice.
This is done in a gradual way, for example, the last year consists of 12 months of internship.
At the end of the six years of medicine in most faculties, there is a work of end of studies to be performed.

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What is the duration of studies for a generalist in Belgium? And for an orthopedic surgeon for example?

Jérôme Lien

Six years of medicine + 3 years of specialty at the contact of the patient, but always under supervision of a specialist.
For other specialties, it varies between four and six years. Most in five years.

The drafting

Are all students some of exercising in Belgium after their degree?
What can be done with a Belgian diploma without number IMAMI? Search for a job outside Belgium?

Jérôme Lien

No! Many students currently have no guarantee with respect to obtaining of an INAMI number.
Unnumbered INAMI, they will be able to do medical research, operating assistance or education.
Without an INAMI number, they receive an INAMI number called “000” allowing that to prescribe drugs.
It does not however to perform additional testing requirements.
They can also go abroad with their medical degree, but the departure abroad in order to find a place of specialty training is extremely difficult given selection systems that characterize the countries of the European union.

The drafting

There is an equivalence of qualifications between the France and the Belgium?

Jérôme Lien

Yes. Many medical practitioners, who have completed their specialty in Belgium, leave in France, given the exciting offers that the France offers the Belgians for regions suffering from shortage of doctors.
For example, you may be offered a home in the province with swimming pool, mobility vehicle, etc. to come perform in a deficient region.
Specialists leave also to issues of attractiveness.

The drafting

That, as for Kinesitherapeuthe or veterinary studies, French students follow the Belgian curriculum to become a doctor?
What is the extent of the phenomenon?
Are there quotas for students who are not Belgian?

Jérôme Lien

Yes, there is non-resident at the entrance quotas, which were introduced just two years ago.
In other words, each year, only 30% of French and other non-residents can enroll in our faculties. The 30% figure is calculated in relation to entries of the previous year.

The drafting

One last word to our readers?

Jérôme Lien

Like a small Gallic village at the time of Jules César, the Belgians still have this peculiarity to resist different selection systems.
It is with this energy, this dynamic of resistance, we are trying to strive for an increase in quotas INAMI.
It is thanks to this energy, we have managed to blow up two systems of selection in the federation Wallonie Bruxelles.
Indeed, as in France, there is a medical shortage in Belgium which creates queues impacting negatively on health care costs, and which directly affects the citizen.
We, future doctors, or doctors in training (internal), are ready to fight for a quality health care system and accessible to all!

The Council of youth in a few words

The Council of youth in a few words
This is the official organ of opinion and spokesperson for francophone youth in Belgium. Its role is to engage young people (16-30 years) in the democratic process, including in collecting their word on a series of issues that directly affect or indirectly political youth to then the relay to the world. The Youth Council defends the interests of young people and the national and international representeau.

The main tool of the Youth Council to make heard the voices of youth, is the issuance of official notice. It then ensures that these proposals are followed by concrete measures to improve the lives of young people. Certainly, the CJ has no decision-making power, but he has a real role of lobby pressure decision-makers of our country.

The Youth Council, is somewhat hair-to-scratch fasting among parliamentarians and Ministers. The Youth Council has achieved many ‘political wins’ to ensure the empowerment of young people in our society: discontinuation of security measures targeted on young people (mosquito, curfew, bootcamp, etc.); the representation of young people in international summits (UN, COP, EU…); the limitation of discriminatory measures for youth employment and unemployment; the introduction of emotional and sexual life in school courses; the integration of education program to the media on the RTBF antennas; etc. etc. etc.

The Youth Council is therefore both to listen to the concerns of young people and their participation in civic life, but also to build a collective voice to bring the voices of youth.

The Ibex-35 lost 0.12 cent on the day, but wins by 5% in the week

The selective Spanish back to 8.850,90 points to close a bullish trend in five days

Volatility in the Ibex-35, which was hesitant all day between the red and the Green, without attacking the 8,900 points in no time and without losing the level of 8,800 points either.The closure was open until the end. Even the publication of regular data in the United States helped to determine how it could be the end of the day. This ended a small decrease of 0.12%, to give a last change at 8,850 points.



The sequence of bullish sessions

Broke, therefore, the sequence of bullish sessions. The indicator has managed to chain five days of rises ytermina week with an appreciation of 5%. It’s the first week in green after four consecutive declines.

The selective Spanish was the best of the week, although the German Dax and the French Cac 40 managed to score around 4.5%, and the worst, the British Ftse 100 gained a not inconsiderable 2.25%. Also in the Friday session the Ibex-35 was the best of the day, despite their losses, since the German Dax fell by 0.42%, the Ftse Mib in Milan, a 0.40%, and the French Cac 40 and the Ftse 100 British, around 0.35%.

In the selective Spanish Mapfre was the best value of the Ibex-35, with a revaluation of 1.55%. Then it was placed to Técnicas Reunidas, with a revaluation of 1.43%. The Popular and day also won more than one percentage point. After Telefonica, was placed with a rise of 0.69%, while Bankia won 0.59% and the Sabadell, half a percentage point. Among the banks, also Bankinter and CaixaBank ended to rise, with gains of 0.23% and 0.15%, respectively. Also for BBVA, which won a 0.36%. Iberdrola was the other “blue chip” ending upward, with an advance of 0.35%.

Negative, Indra was the worst, with a decrease of 2.34%. After settled IAG and Acciona, with losses of 1.71% each. Natural gas was the other value which fell more than one full percentage point. Among the large, the worst was the Santander, which dropped by 0.78%, followed immediately by Repsol, which dropped by 0.76%. Inditex also ended negative, with a fall of 0.47%.

On the General index of the Bolsa de Madrid, Duro Felguera was the most climbed, with a revaluation of 3.92%, followed by Adveo, which won a 3.57%. Red, Urbas was the worst, with a fall of 7.69%.

In the Eurostoxx 50, Carrefour led the advances, with a revaluation of 3.82%, after filing its first-quarter sales figures. Negative, the worst were Volkswagen and Daimler, with declines of more than 2%.

In the week, in the Ibex-35, ArcelorMittal has shone with a rise of 21%, followed by Mapfre, which it has scored a 14.60%, to be then placed Sabadell and Popular, who have scored a 13.48% and 11.76%, respectively. Between 9% and 11% have advanced OHL, Repsol, Santander, Técnicas Reunidas, BBVA and Bankia. In red, only two values: Grifols, who lost a 4.08%, and Acciona, which dropped by 1.33%.

Bad data in the United States, good in China

What bad data were published in the United States?, what was what might be behind that in the end the Ibex-35 was decided on the red numbers? American industrial production disappointed, falling by 0.6%, against the decrease of 0.1% estimated by analysts. The percentage of installed capacity utilization fell to 74.8%, when it was estimated that it could sit in 75.3%. In addition, the confidence index of the American consumer in advance for the month of April fell from the 91 to 89.7 points, when we expected it to rise to 92 points. Bad news, then, that industry does not trace while the expectations of the consumer, who was resisting, deteriorate.

At least, the references from China were favorable. It is true that the GDP met expectations, to slow down from 6.8% to 6.7% in the first quarter of the year. But in view of other indicators, could be bottoming out, given that March industrial production grew 6.8% year on year, above the 5.9 percent estimated by analysts, while the sales to the retail grew 10.5% also y/y in March, above the 10.4% foreseen by the experts.

But the news from China not helped to keep the price of oil. The barrel of Brent, of reference in Europe, fell by 3%, to $42.5. The barrel of West Texas, of reference in the United States, fell 2.5%, to $40.5. This week, Brent has managed to overcome the 44 dollars, while West Texas has reached 42 dollars. The cut may have to do with that investors did not want to be exposed to the very important meeting which will take place next Sunday in Doha between the leaders of the major oil-producing countries. Perhaps because of the possible disappointment that may occur.

The euro recovers against the dollar

In the currency market, the euro went back up against the dollar. Upload to 1,1450 units on Tuesday fell to 1,1250 at the meeting of yesterday, to end today in the surroundings of 1.13 units.

In the debt market, lowered the bond yields in general, but with a few exceptions, like the Spanish, whose performance remained at 1.50%. But the profitability of the ten-year German bond fell 0.17% 0.13%, while that of the American backed down from 1.79% to 1.75%. And this, because of the bad data published in the United States, that away in time the possibility of a rise in U.S. Federal Reserve interest rates. For this reason also won positions the single European currency to the greenback.

The American Stock Exchange, however, remained flat on the session yesterday. Perhaps because I did not know which interpretation remain, with the concern that is derived from the published data, or if the positive due to implying monetary policy.

The wealth of families increased by 4.8% in 2015

It amounted to 1.230.848 million euros and remains above levels before the economic crisis, since in the first half of 2007 it was the billion euros

gold bars chart

Net financial wealth of Spanish families reached 1.230.848 billion euros in 2015

Net financial wealth of Spanish families reached 1.230.848 billion euros in 2015, representing an increase of 4.8% compared to 2014, according to data from the Bank of Spain.

In relation to GDP, net financial assets represented the 113.8%, one point more than a year earlier.

The wealth of households is maintained above the levels prior to the economic crisis, since in the first half of 2007, just before the start of the economic downturn, he rubbed the billion euros. This shows that families are paying down its debt and have used the years of crisis to reduce your debt and increase your wealth.

In fact, the household debt stood at the end of 2015 at 781.512 million euros, its lowest level since June 2006 and Figure 2.9% less than the 2014.

Total financial assets of families, before debt have, reached the 2,012 billion in 2015, up 1.6% in 2014.

Less money on deposits but more on actions

The total wealth of the families by 2015, was much of their savings in cash and deposits, 849.376 million euros, although this amount is 0.2% less than the 2014. Shares and participations in investment funds, Spanish households treasured a total of 756.696 million euros, up 3.3% in 2014.

Insurance and pensions, which totaled 336.650 million euros, families have increased 1.2% participation, while increased in other assets, 41.065 million euros, 7.9%.

By the side of the debt of the 781.512 million Spanish families supposed to do at end of last year, the majority of these liabilities were loans, amounting to 729.622 million euro, down 3.2% in 2014.

Within the total of credits, which have short-term maturity increased 6.2%, to 28.005 million euros, compared to long-term credits, which decreased 3.6%, to 701.617 million, while they followed monopolizing most of the household debt.

Digital training for 100 SMEs in Castilla y León

BBVA and Google will offer courses in digital marketing

BBVA and Google will offer courses in digital marketing so that small and medium-sized enterprises in the community can compete in a globalized market and serving increasingly demanding customers


The headquarters of BBVA in Valladolid will host next June 30 the classroom training in digital marketing, which will come a hundred of SMEs of Castile Leon, according to sources of the financial institution. The course is part of the Google initiative ‘Live your business’, in which participates the financial institution.

This training project was presented at the Ministry of telecommunications. A Google program involving BBVA, Cepyme and the Incyde Foundation of Chambers of Commerce. Born with the objective of optimizing the presence and participation ‘online’ for SMEs through training in digital skills. Training in the BBVA will have other thirteen quotations in different Spanish cities in 2016. Total, involved 1,400 clients SMEs in the Bank.

Small and medium-sized enterprises are, according to defend the BBVA, the engine of the Spanish economy and therefore this entity has years the social commitment to support their growth through education and training. In the words of Yolanda Martínez Bajo, Director of the Northwest Territorial of BBVA, “the technological advances that we live allow us to say that we are in the era of opportunities and, as a bank reference in the transformation, we must ensure that small entrepreneurs to compete increasingly in their markets through training and new banking services that make them more simple management which will generate wealth in our country.

Employability of young people

For Francisco Ruiz Antón, director of policy and public affairs for Google Spain and Portugal, “Spanish society has to go for training in the digital economy to promote the employability of young people and, as a consequence, the competitiveness of the enterprises in which they work to meet the needs of this new reality.”

All this because in recent years, technology has caused a change of habits without precedent among users, and companies have to be prepared to compete in an increasingly globalised market and serve customers very demanding with the immediacy and the price.


The classroom training will consist of a five hour workshop in which participants will learn all the steps to be followed to define and implement your company’s digital strategy.

The ‘online’ training includes 23 modules with content created by specialists on ‘online presence, e-commerce, social networks or search engines, fruit of the collaboration of more than 100 experts in technology and digital competences of Europe and endorsed by IAB Europe and IAB Spain. The learning plan is practical and, after a simple diagnosis, suits the specific needs of each company. This ‘online’ training targets any SME who can not attend face-to-face workshops and those who want to expand what they learned at the Conference.

World leaders return to Davos with Europe’s economic weakness and the fall of the oil as a backdrop

It starts again the economic meeting in Davos

It starts again the economic meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Global, political, economic and business leaders gather tomorrow 21 to Saturday 24 to face the new challenges. Among them, the economic slowdown in the euro zone, hit by the threat of deflation, and strong oil down.


With the forecast to reach 11 million unemployed around the world, according to the ILO, in 2019 attendees will try to find solutions to shore up growth. A growth which is patent, in the United States thanks in part to its monetary policy, where the Federal Reserve has injected money into their economic.

A strategy in Europe has not yet been taken but that is expected to occur this coming Thursday at the meeting of the European Central Bank.

This “asynchronous” of global monetary policy, according to the organizers of Davos, can finish even more hitting the currency markets. Currently, with the euro depreciating against the dollar.

Also, you can also pass bill most vulnerable emerging market economies.

Rajoy will not turn

For the third consecutive year, the Prime Minister will not attend the Davos Economic Forum. Instead of Mariano Rajoy, will be economy Minister Luis de Guindos.

“Is the Minister of economy and let’s be perfectly represented,” said the Secretary of State for relations with courts, José Luis Ayllón, as a Government spokesman to point to that cherry will participate the 23rd Forum. “There is a difference between the first Davos of cherry trees and the third,” he said to hold that “whenever Black Cherry goes to Davos things are going better than last year”, according to Servimedia.

Rajoy goes not because the National Convention of the PP, which will take place in Madrid, between 23 and 25 January.

Prices fall 0.8% in March and there are already eight months followed without rates in positive

The fall in prices in March

The fall in prices in March is mainly due to the prices of fuels (diesel and gasoline), which took less than a year ago. Underlying inflation (without unprocessed food and energy products) increased one-tenth, meanwhile to 1.1%.

(IPC) consumer price index recorded in March, a year on year fall of 0.8%, the same as in February, and adds eight consecutive months without scoring rates in positive, according to data published Wednesday by the National Institute of statistics (INE). Images photo 1 the rate of annual variation of underlying inflation (general index without energy products and unprocessed food) increased for his part in a tenth to 1.1%.


The fall in prices in March, annual rate, is mainly due to the prices of fuels (diesel and gasoline), which took less than a year ago. In particular, transport decreased their rate six-tenths, to 5.3%. For its part, the groups with the greatest positive influence were food and non-alcoholic beverages, with a variation of 1.7%, four tenths more than in the previous month, as a result of the rise in prices of vegetables and fresh vegetables, against the fall of last year.

The Group of hotels, cafes and restaurants with a variation of 1.6%, also had a positive influence two tenths more than that recorded in February, because of the increase in prices of hotels and other accommodation.

The annual CPI rate decreased in all regions,

The annual CPI rate decreased in all regions, and the largest decreases were recorded in Cantabria (1.1%), Canarias (0.9%), Baleares (0.7%) and Catalonia (0.6%), with one tenth on all downs. Andalusia and Extremadura, with falls of 0.8 and 0.9% respectively, increased their rates two-tenths for February.

Study medicine in France

General Organization

Currently, medical studies consist of three cycles that studies from 9 to 11 years following the chosen sector. Two competitions punctuate the curriculum: end of first year serving the selection, end of second cycle that directs students to their vocational. Many reforms are underway that are likely in the future to upset this organization,in particular the reform licence – master – doctorate which tends to standardize academic studies in the European area.

The first year, the contest and the numerus clausus, undergraduate
The first year
Order specifying the Organization of the first year common to health studies is published October 28, 2009
The great novelty of this reform is the fact that this first year will be common to students in medicine, pharmacy, dentistry and future midwives. She comes into force from the beginning of the academic year from September 2010.

This first year will be composed of two semesters and will combine theoretical and tutorial lessons. The training during the first two semesters features common to the four streams of teaching units. In addition, during the first half, information on trades and an awareness of biomedical research, and in the second half, a unit of education specific to each of the sectors. This first year will result in four separate competitions in which students will be free to register.
At the end of the events of the second half, four rankings are established taking intoaccount results across the common teaching units and specific teaching unit.
Students in useful rank on the list of classification corresponding to the selected sector are allowed to continue their studies beyond the first year.
Devices are also provided to redirect students the greatest difficulty at the end of the first half.


The second year or P.C.E.M.2

After their success in the competition, students are admitted in PCEM2, the secondyear. They begin with a hospital internship of four weeks, which is actually a nursingcourse placed under the responsibility of a head of service but in fact under the authority of a nursing framework. The rest of the PCEM2 has a complementary program of so-called basic materials, with practical work and tutorials lessons more numerous than in the first year where the mass of students is not in favour of pedagogies active. It is in the academic year usually starts to as the teaching of medical English.

The second cycle

It consists of four years of DCEM1 to DCEM4. In fact, we must separate two parts: the first year of this cycle, DCEM1, is a year of transition that remains highly theoretical, with bioclinique teaching and hospital courses where the student is a mere observer.

The other three years come to be reformed (Decree of 4 March 1997): they are the essential basis of clinical learning. To facilitate the overall approach of the human person, so avoid to consider it in short of bodies, 11 ‘transverse’ modules have been created which incorporate the major stages of human existence or the doctor-patientrelationship.

Module 1: Learning the medical exercise
Module 2: From conception to birth
Module 3: Maturation and vulnerability
Module 4: Disability, disability, dependency
Module 5: Aging
Module 6: Pain, hospices, accompaniment
Module 7: Health and environment, communicable diseases
Module 8: Immuno-pathology, inflammatory diseases
Module 9: Atherosclerosis, hypertension, thrombosis
Module 10: Oncology, onco-hematology
Module 11: Synthesis clinical and therapeutic of the complaint from the patient to the therapeutic decision, emergencies

These theoretical courses are added hospital placements of two to four months, with passages obliged in certain sectors (emergencies, Pediatrics…). These slightly remunerated traineeships give that become “hospital student” (the former external…) responsibilities first in a medical team and his first approach real patients; the status ofthe hospital student is contained in Decree No. 70-931 of 8 October 1970, adaptedby several orders. In addition, thirty guards are required during this period.

Reviews complete each year, and assessment of the internship counts in these Terminal controls. Review of D.C.E.M.4, corresponding to module 11, is called certificate of clinical and therapeutic synthesis. It is a typically practical examination.

A device allows a small number of candidates (twenty for the France) join the studies directly in the third year (Decree of 26 March 1993)

This possibility is available to surgeons dentists pharmacists theses, students of grandes écoles (normal superior, polytechnique, Centrale, etc…); This parallel entry is very positive, it could be generalized to each of our establishments.

The third cycle
It is the real framework of vocational training

Third round of specialty:
D.E.S.: internal is obliged to choose a specialty studies diploma (which replaced the former these) from 1984 and that based on its level of success in the competition. They last four year for most disciplines, or even five years for surgical disciplines, internal medicine, radiology.

The D.E.S.C. the educational qualifications of complementary specialties, with a duration of two years complement the D.E.S. providing a complementary competence. There are two categories, those in Group 1, which do not give right to exercise, and those of the Group 2 whose use is allowed in the facility.

The thesis of Medicine:
It is mandatory for third cycle and necessary for installation as well as to become a hospital doctor. It is a memory of unequal value chosen preferably in the field of the applicant. The submission of this thesis to a jury, and satisfaction to all of the requirements of the third cycle allows the student to use the title of doctor of medicine with the words general medicine or specialties